It is the third largest country in the world in area (after the USSR and Canada). The USA has a very slightly smaller land area. It is the largest country in terms of population (over 1,000 million people), about a quarter of the world's total. For more on the country of China see our Geography index.
China has two of the world's longest rivers (the Yellow River and the Yangzi); two of the largest deserts (the Gobi and the Taklamakan); the world's highest mountain (Qomolangma Feng - Mt Everest); the vast Qinghai-Tibet plateau and the huge plains of North China. The climate varies from the subtropical south, with a heavy monsoon rainfall, to the arid North-west; in winter the temperature can be -30°C in the North-east, yet 15°C in the far South.
There are over 50 different nationalities living in China. The majority (94 percent) are Han Chinese; the other groups include Tibetans, Mongolians, Uyghurs, Zhuang, Li and Miao whose languages and customs are quite different from those of the Han.
Chinese (Hanyu), the language of the Han Chinese is spoken by most people in China. The term 'Chinese' includes many different dialects. The most important by far is Northern Chinese (Mandarin), spoken by several hundred million people. Other dialects include Cantonese, Shanghainese, Hakka, Fujianese, (Min), Xiang and Gan. The differences between dialects can be quite large, Cantonese and Northern Chinese (Mandarin) so much so that people who can only speak Mandarin find Cantonese extremely difficult to understand. For example, 'pot' in Mandarin is guo, whereas in Cantonese it is wok. Most of the time Chinese people write their language in Chinese characters.
A Chinese character stands for a syllable, and is not a letter of an alphabet. For instance, means 'pot'.
Chinese characters have had the effect of unifying Chinese people in spite of differences in their dialects, and people read newspapers and books printed with the same characters all over the country, even though they will pronounce the words differently. For more on the Chinese language see our Language index.
This is a system for writing Chinese using the Roman alphabet. It is used on road signs (in addition to characters), for teaching children in China how to speak putonghua, and also for helping foreigners to learn the language. Below is a rough guide to how some letters should be pronounced:
|a = 'ah'||u = 'oo'||q = 'tch'||zh = 'j' as in 'join'|
|e = 'er'||c = 'ts'||x = 'sh'|
|i = 'ee' or 'ur'||o = 'aw'||z = 'dz'|
Personal and place-names are now uniformly written in pinyin, and this has resulted in some familiar names being spelt in a different way: Mao Tse-tung as Mao Zedong, Peking as Beijing, and so on. Putonghua or Modern Standard Chinese is the official language of the People's Republic of China. Putonghua is based on the 'Mandarin' dialect. It is still often called 'Mandarin' in the West even though this is a very outdated term, as Mandarins (court officials) have not existed in China for over 70 years. In this issue, most of the Chinese terms will be given in Modern Standard Chinese (abbreviated MSC) unless otherwise stated.
China sometimes sees itself as a Third World country, but outsiders sometimes find it puzzling that a Third World country can build its own rockets and nuclear weapons and have advanced research programmes in many aspects of science. About 55 percent of the people live in the countryside, and though many parts of rural China are still poor, the Chinese have, through their own efforts, managed to solve their food problem, achieved a remarkable level of health care, and provided at least primary education for the majority of children. Since 1949, China's achievements have been an inspiration to many Third World countries.
Most Chinese migrants to the UK came from the New Territories of Hongkong, and this accounts for the fact that the major dialect spoken amongst Chinese people here is Cantonese. A smaller number speak Hakka as their first language, and about 5 percent speak putonghua. Since the late 1970s, many ethnic Chinese have come to Britain from Vietnam as refugees, and they speak Vietnamese as well as one of the Chinese dialects. For more on the UK community see UK Chinese community page
One of the oldest terms for 'China' is Zhongguo which means 'Middle' 'Kingdom' One explanation, sometimes disputed, is that the Chinese regarded China as the centre of the civilised world, surrounded by barbarians. The English word 'China' seems to derive from the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) during which the Great Wall was built.
Poetic names for China include Jiuzhou, 'Nine Regions' - China was supposed to have been divided into nine regions in ancient times - and Shenzhou 'Divine Region'.
Between 1912 and 1949, the official name for China was Zhonghua Minguo, 'The Republic of China'. Hua was the name taken by the early Han people, and the word is often used to mean 'China' in names such as Xinhua Shudian, 'New China Bookshop'.
Since 1949, China has been called Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo, 'The People's Republic of China', although in everyday speech it is still called Zhongguo. You often come across zuguo, 'the motherland', and wo guo, 'my country', as synonyms for China.
© Copyright Society for Anglo-Chinese Understanding (SACU) 2001 : David Wright, China Now 123, Page 9
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